Aim: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and elevated BMI in the USA is poorly defined. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children with type 1 diabetes who are overweight or obese have increased frequencies of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria compared to their healthy weight peers.
Methods: We studied 11,348 children 2 to <18 years of age enrolled in T1D Exchange between September 2010 and August 2012 with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year and BMI ≥ 5th age-/sex-adjusted percentile (mean age 12 years, 49 % female, 78 % non-Hispanic White). Overweight and obesity were defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Diagnoses of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria were obtained from medical records. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with weight status.
Results: Of the 11,348 participants, 22 % were overweight and 14 % obese. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were diagnosed in 1.0 % and 3.8 % of participants, respectively; micro-/macroalbuminuria was diagnosed in 3.8 % of participants with available data (n = 7,401). The odds of either hypertension or dyslipidemia were higher in obese than healthy weight participants [OR 3.5, 99 % confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.1 and 2.2, 99 % CI 1.6-3.1, respectively]. Obese participants tended to be diagnosed with micro-/macroalbuminuria less often than healthy weight participants (OR 0.6, 99 % CI 0.4-1.0).
Conclusions: Obese children with type 1 diabetes have a higher prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia than healthy weight children with type 1 diabetes. The possible association of obesity with lower micro-/macroalbuminuria rates warrants further investigation.
Keywords: BMI; Dyslipidemia; Epidemiology; Hypertension; Micro-albuminuria; Obesity; Overweight.