Bronchiectasis is prevalent in patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD in China. Data from patients diagnosed with COPD at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. Data from 896 patients with COPD were analyzed. Bronchiectasis was present in 311 patients. The isolation of pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) from sputum was the variable most significantly associated with the presence of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD (hazard ratio (HR), 2.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-6.37; P = 0.007). During follow-up (median of 21 months; interquartile range: 10-39 months), there were 75 deaths, of which 39 were in the bronchiectasis group. The presence of bronchiectasis (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.02-3.08; P = 0.043) was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality in patients with COPD. These results suggest that bronchiectasis in patients with COPD was associated with the isolation of PA from the sputum. Bronchiectasis was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in patients with COPD.