Detection of superficial esophageal squamous cell neoplasia by chromoendoscopy-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy

World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun 14;21(22):6974-81. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i22.6974.


Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of Lugol's chromoendoscopy-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in detecting superficial esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN).

Methods: Between December 2008 and September 2010, a total of 52 patients were enrolled at the Chinese PLA General Hospital in Beijing, China. First, Lugol's chromoendoscopy-guided CLE was performed in these patients and the CLE in vivo histological diagnosis was recorded. Then, chromoendoscopy-guided biopsy was performed in the same patients by another endoscopist who was blinded to the CLE findings. Based on the biopsy and CLE diagnosis, en bloc endoscopic resection was performed. The CLE in vivo diagnosis and the histological diagnosis of biopsy of ESCN were compared, using a histological examination of the endoscopic resection specimens as the standard reference.

Results: A total of 152 chromoendoscopy-guided biopsies were obtained from 56 lesions. In the 56 lesions of 52 patients, a total of 679 CLE images were obtained vs 152 corresponding biopsies. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of chromoendoscopy-guided CLE compared with biopsy were 95.7% vs 82% (P < 0.05), 90% vs 70% (P < 0.05), 81.8% vs 46.7% (P < 0.05), and 97.8% vs 92.7% (P > 0.05), respectively. There was a significant improvement in sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and accuracy when comparing chromoendoscopy-guided CLE with biopsy.

Conclusion: Lugol's chromoendoscopy-guided CLE is a real-time, non-invasive endoscopic diagnostic technology; the accuracy of the detection of superficial ESCN is equivalent to or may be superior to biopsy histology.

Trial registration: NCT01156064 NCT01378507.

Keywords: Chromoendoscopy; Confocal endomicroscopy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Squamous cell neoplasm; Superficial esophageal neoplasia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biopsy
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology*
  • China
  • Chromogenic Compounds*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Esophagoscopy / methods*
  • Esophagus / pathology*
  • Female
  • Hospitals, General
  • Humans
  • Iodides*
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Confocal*
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Chromogenic Compounds
  • Iodides
  • Lugol's solution

Associated data