Chemopreventive Effect of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) Against Benzo(α)Pyrene-Induced Forestomach Papillomagenesis in Swiss Albino Mice

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2015;34(2):95-104. doi: 10.1615/jenvironpatholtoxicoloncol.2015010838.


Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention has recently gained significant recognition. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), a dietary phytoproduct, is a popular spice that is regularly used as a flavoring agent in various cuisines, and is much valued for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the cancer chemopreventive potential of cardamom was investigated against benzo(α)pyrene [B(α)P]-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. Results showed that treatment with cardamom [(B(α)P + cardamom] reduced tumor incidence and multiplicity significantly (P<0.001) by 41.67% and 74.55%, respectively, compared to that of the B(α)P control group. Biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the hepatic activities of glutathione-S-transferases (P<0.01), superoxide dismutase (P<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (P<0.001), and catalase (P<0.001) in mice treated with cardamom compared with the control. Furthermore, the nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione was significantly (P<0.001) increased in the cardamom-treated group, whereas the lipid peroxidation level along with lactate dehydrogenase activity exhibited a significant (P<0.01) reduction with cardamom treatment compared to the control. These results suggest that cardamom has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent against forestomach cancer.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Benzo(a)pyrene / toxicity
  • Elettaria / chemistry*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Papilloma / chemically induced
  • Papilloma / drug therapy*
  • Phytotherapy
  • Stomach Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Antioxidants
  • Benzo(a)pyrene
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Glutathione