Dietary modification and supplementation for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration

Nutr Rev. 2015 Jul;73(7):448-62. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv005. Epub 2015 Apr 28.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a significant proportion of visual loss in the developed world. Currently, little is known about its pathogenesis, and treatment options are limited. Dietary intake is one of the few modifiable risk factors for this condition. The best-validated therapies remain oral antioxidant supplements based on those investigated in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and the recently completed Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2). In this review, current dietary guidelines related to AMD, along with the underlying evidence to support them, are presented in conjunction with current treatment recommendations. Both AREDS and AREDS2 are discussed, as are avenues for further research, including supplementation with vitamin D and saffron. Despite the considerable disease burden of atrophic AMD, few effective therapies are available to treat it, and further research is required.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration; antioxidants; diet; dietary supplements..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage
  • Cholesterol / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Disease Progression
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Fishes
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / diet therapy*
  • Macular Degeneration / genetics
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Nuts
  • Seafood
  • Vegetables
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Micronutrients
  • Vitamin D
  • Carotenoids
  • Cholesterol

Supplementary concepts

  • Macular Degeneration, Age-Related, 2