Health-related quality of life in persons with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension on at least four antihypertensives

J Hum Hypertens. 2016 Mar;30(3):191-6. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2015.61. Epub 2015 Jun 18.


Little is known about the impact of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) on health-related quality of life (HrQoL). We aimed to compare HrQoL measures in adults with apparent TRH (aTRH) and non-resistant hypertension among nationally representative US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data pooled from 2000 to 2011. Cohorts compared were adults with aTRH (⩾2 unique fills from ⩾4 antihypertensive classes during a year) versus non-resistant hypertension (those with hypertension not meeting the aTRH definition). Key outcomes were cohort differences in SF-12v2 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores and disease-state utility using the SF-6D. Of 57 150 adults with hypertension, 2501 (4.4%) met criteria for aTRH. Persons with aTRH, compared with non-resistant hypertension, were older (mean, 68 vs 61 years), had a higher BMI (30.9 vs 29.7 kg m(-)(2)) and were more likely to be Black (20% vs 14%), but less likely to be female (46% vs 54%). Persons with aTRH, compared with non-resistant hypertension, had lower mean PCS scores (35.8 vs 43.2; P<0.0001), and utility (0.68 vs 0.74; P<0.0001), but similar MCS scores (49.1 vs 50.4). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, aTRH was associated with a 2.37 (95% CI 1.71 to 3.02) lower PCS score and 0.02 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.03) lower utility, compared with non-resistant hypertension. In conclusion, aTRH was associated with substantially lower HrQoL in physical functioning and health utility, but not in mental functioning, compared with non-resistant hypertension. The multivariable-adjusted reduction in physical functioning was similar in magnitude to previous observations comparing hypertension with no hypertension.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / psychology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life* / psychology
  • Treatment Failure


  • Antihypertensive Agents