The "evidence-based practice inventory": reliability and validity was demonstrated for a novel instrument to identify barriers and facilitators for Evidence Based Practice in health care

J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Nov;68(11):1261-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.06.002. Epub 2015 Jun 15.


Objectives: To design and validate a practical questionnaire for clinicians, to identify barriers and facilitators for evidence-based practice (EBP), that is, the use of research evidence in patient care. The inventory is ultimately intended for departments to assess local conditions for EBP, to aim and evaluate efforts at improving or maximizing EBP.

Study design and setting: We derived candidate items from existing EBP scales, psychology, and behavioral economics. In an online Delphi study, 537 international expert clinicians, researchers, teachers, and policymakers interested in EBP identified items with sufficient face and content validity. We piloted and validated the resulting draft inventory among 127 clinicians from various specialties and career stages.

Results: The Delphi study started with 114 items and resulted in a draft inventory with 29 items in five dimensions. During the pilot, the inventory was easy to complete within 15 minutes and the items showed sufficient response variation. In four of five dimensions, test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect and the power to discriminate between groups with different expertise was adequate, whereas internal consistency showed that the items generally measured the same construct. On the basis of internal consistency and factor analysis, we excluded three items. The final EBP inventory consists of 26 items in five dimensions: decision making, subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavior control, and intention and behavior.

Discussion and conclusion: The EBP inventory was developed with support of EBP experts and validated among various academic clinicians. It shows adequate face and content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminative power, and completion will take <15 minutes. We recommend further evaluation of its value in field trials.

Keywords: Evidence-based medicine; Evidence-based practice; Internal consistency; Questionnaire; Reliability; Survey; Validity.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Delivery of Health Care / standards*
  • Evidence-Based Practice / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*