Purpose of review: The purpose of this review was to describe the potential for general childhood population-based screening of risk of symptomatic type 1 diabetes (T1D) RECENT FINDINGS: The earliest stages of T1D can be identified and risk and rate of progression to symptomatic disease can be estimated by the presence of multiple islet autoantibodies and glucose intolerance (dysglycemia) in individuals screened for risk. Screening for human leukocyte antigen risk genotypes in neonates with follow-up detection of islet autoantibodies in childhood has been explored. An alternative approach of general childhood population-based detection of autoantibodies at well child visits provides an approach to detect a high proportion of children who will develop T1D. The Fr1da study was launched in Bavaria in 2015 to explore this concept.
Summary: General childhood population-based screening for risk of T1D will allow detection of an at-risk population that can participate in natural history studies to better understand disease pathogenesis and intervention trials to prevent symptomatic disease and will provide a framework for public health-based prevention of childhood-onset T1D.