Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, with approximately 1 million diagnoses annually. Triterpenoids, which have cancer preventive or anti-tumour efficacy towards various tumour cells, may play a role in breast cancer prevention. In our previous study, an acetic ether (EtOAc) fraction from the sporocarp of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) exhibited significant tumour cell growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, three pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds (1-3) were isolated from EtOAc extracts using chromatographic separation and were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The compounds were 2, 3, 6, 23-tetrahydroxy-urs-12-en-28 oic acid (1), 2,3,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28 oic acid (2) and lupeol (3). All three purified triterpenes showed significant inhibitory activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines in vitro, with the greatest activity exhibited by compound 1, followed by compound 2 and 3. The IC(50) values were 15.71, 48 and 66.89 μM, respectively. Our study may help elucidate the health benefits of P. eryngii mushroom consumption.