Grapes are the richest source of antioxidants due to the presence of potent bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, the phytochemical contents, scavenging activities and protective role against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue ex vivo of four grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars extracts, namely Flame seedless (black), Kishmish chorni (black with reddish brown), Red globe (red) and Thompson seedless mutant (green), were evaluated. The total phenolics and flavonoids content in pulp or skin fractions of different grape cultivars were in the range of 47.6-310 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight (fw), and 46.6-733.3 µg catechin equivalent/g fw respectively. The scavenging activities in skin of different grape varieties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (44-58 %), hydrogen peroxide (15.3-18.6 %), and hydroxyl radicals (50-85 %), were higher than pulp of the corresponding cultivars. These scavenging activities of grape extracts were found to be significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with the levels of total phenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. Liver tissues from goat treated with H2O2 (500 μM) showed significantly decreased GSH content by 42.9 % and activities of catalase by 50 % and glutathione reductase by 66.6 %; while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide level by 2.53- and 0.86-fold, respectively, and activity of glutathione S-transferase by 0.96-fold. Grape skin extracts showed the stronger protective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue ex vivo, than its pulp of any cultivar; and the Flame seedless (black) cultivar showed the highest potential. In conclusion, our study suggested that the higher antioxidant potential, phytochemical contents and significant scavenging capacities in pulp and skin of grape extracts showed the protective action of grape extracts against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue ex vivo.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Grapes; Hydrogen peroxide; Liver; Scavenging activity; Vitis vinifera.