Background: This registrational trial evaluated the efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes of axitinib versus sorafenib as a second-line treatment in Asian patients with clear-cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Methods: In this open-label, multicenter study, previously treated Asian patients with clear-cell mRCC were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and prior therapy and randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive axitinib (5 mg twice daily) or sorafenib (400 mg twice daily). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by a masked independent review committee.
Results: A total of 204 Asian patients received axitinib (n=135) or sorafenib (n=69). Median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 6.5 (4.7-9.1) months with axitinib versus 4.8 (3.0-6.5) months with sorafenib (hazard ratio, 0.731; 95% CI, 0.506-1.058; one-sided P=0.0531). The objective response rate (95% CI) was 23.7% (16.8%-31.8%) with axitinib versus 10.1% (4.2%-19.8%) with sorafenib. Common, grade ≥3, all-causality adverse events were hypertension (19.3%), weight decrease (5.2%), and proteinuria (5.2%) with axitinib and hypertension (8.7%) and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (7.2%) with sorafenib. In a time-to-deterioration composite end point of death, progression, and worsening of Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Kidney Symptom Index score, patients treated with axitinib demonstrated a 17%-24% risk reduction compared with sorafenib-treated patients.
Conclusion: Axitinib is clinically active and well tolerated in previously treated Asian patients with mRCC, consistent with the results from the global Phase III trial. These results establish axitinib as a second-line treatment option for Asian patients with mRCC.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920816.
Keywords: axitinib; renal cell carcinoma; sorafenib; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.