Objective: To compare the clinical impact of a prophylactic treatment with sublingual immunostimulation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) with the use of antibiotics.
Material and methods: Retrospective cohort study evaluating the medical records of 669 women with rUTIs; 339 had a 6-month prophylaxis with antibiotics and 360 a 3-month prophylaxis with a sublingual bacterial preparation (MV 140-Uromune®). The time frame after the prophylaxis-period until the appearance of a new infection (assessed by uroculture) was scored and followed during 1 year. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number needed to treat (NNT) were also calculated.
Results: All patients treated with antibiotics experienced a new UTI during the scoring period of 12 months, being 19 days the median number of days free of UTIs (range 5-300). In the group treated with the bacterial preparation, 35 (9.7%) patients experienced an UTI in the same period. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the accumulated survival (disease-free time) between both groups were significant different (P < 0.0001). The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 90.28% (87.18-93.38) and the number needed to treat (NNT) 1.1 (1.1-1.1).
Conclusions: These results suggest that the treatment with this bacterial preparation significantly reduces the incidence of rUTIs, arising as an effective strategy to reduce the frequency of rUTIs. It reduces antibiotic consumption, matching the current recommendations due to the raise of antimicrobial resistance. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, clinical trials are needed to establish, more accurately, the clinical impact of this bacterial preparation in patients with rUTIs.
Keywords: Uromune (MV 140); bacterial vaccine; recurrent urinary infections.