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Review
, 16 (6), 13868-84

Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

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Review

Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

Laurent Laboureur et al. Int J Mol Sci.

Abstract

This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC). It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering) or highly specific (mass spectrometry) detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides) defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium.

Keywords: lipid; mass spectrometry; supercritical fluid chromatography.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Pressure-Temperature phase diagram of CO2.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Hyphenation between supercritical fluid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Examples of lipid structures. Cer: ceramide; hCer: hydroxyceramide; SM: sphingomyeline; PC: phosphatidylcholines; GalCer: galactosylceramide; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PS: phosphatidylserine; PI: phosphatidylinositol; ST: sulfatide; PG: phosphatidylglycerol; PA: phosphatidic acid; CL: cardiolipin.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Reconstructed ion chromatograms on the HSS C18 SB column (Waters) at different column temperatures: (A) unsaturated standard free fatty acid mixture and (B) saturated standard free fatty acid mixture [21], with permission.
Figure 5
Figure 5
UV (blue) and ELSD (red) chromatograms for rapeseed oil with the optimal selected chromatographic system (60 cm Kinetex C18 + 15 cm Accucore C18) [30]. C16:0 (P, palmitic), C18:0 (S, stearic), C18:1 (O, oleic), C18:2 (L, linoleic), and C18:3 (Ln, linolenic).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Base peak ion (BPI) chromatograms and 2-D displays of SFC-MS data obtained from the lipid mixtures by using a cyano column in the positive-ion mode (A) and negative-ion mode (B). 1. triglyecrides; 2.diglycerides; 3.monoacylglycerol; 4.diglyceride dimers; 5. phosphatidic acids; 6. phosphatidylcholines; 7. phosphatidylethanolamines; 8. phosphatidylglycerols; 9. phosphatidylinositols; 10. phosphatidylserines; 11. lyso-phosphatidylcholines; 12. sphingomyelins; 13.cermaides; and 14.cerebrosides [16], with permission.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Chromatogram recorded with DPH column, with a gradient of CO2/EtOH + formic acid (0.1%) (1.25 mL·min−1), at 55 °C, 1 µL injected at 1 mM, and UV detection at 340 nm. 1. Retinyl acetate, 2. retinal, 3. retinyl propionate, 4. retinol, 5. retinoic acid, 6. retinylpalmitate [61], with permission.

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