Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is considered a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease characterized by patchy loss of hair from scalp and other body parts with no definitive treatment. Calcipotriol is a vitamin D analogue and a potent immunomodulatuary molecule. In recent studies, low serum vitamin D levels have been observed in patients with AA and various autoimmune diseases. Previous reports have also described the effects of vitamin D on hair follicles.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical calcipotriol for the treatment of mild-to-moderate patchy AA.
Method: Forty-eight patients with mild-to-moderate AA were enrolled in the retrospective, 12-week trial. Calcipotriol cream was applied to the affected areas twice a day. Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score and hair regrowth rate were calculated at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks.
Results: At week 12, the total response was achieved in 69.2% of patients. When the mean SALT score of patients at week 12 was compared to that of patients at baseline, the value at week 12 was significantly lower (P= 0.001). A regrowth score (RGS) ≥ 3 (hair regrowth of ≥ 50%) was observed in 75% of patients, whereas a RGS ≥ 4 (hair regrowth of ≥ 75%) was observed in 62.5% of patients and the complete regrowth rate (hair regrowth= 100%) was 27.1%.
Conclusion: Calcipotriol may serve as a safe and effective treatment option in mild-to-moderate patchy AA, and calls for more extensive controlled studies with this treatment.