Effectiveness of resistance training or jumping-exercise to increase bone mineral density in men with low bone mass: A 12-month randomized, clinical trial

Bone. 2015 Oct:79:203-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.06.008. Epub 2015 Jun 16.


Purpose: To examine the effects of 12 mo of resistance training (RT, 2×/wk, N=19) or jump training (JUMP, 3×/wk, N=19) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in physically active (≥ 4h/wk) men (mean age: 44 ± 2 y; median: 44 y) with osteopenia of the hip or spine.

Methods: Participants rated pain and fatigue following each RT or JUMP session. All participants received supplemental calcium (1200 mg/d) and vitamin D (10 μg/d). BMD was measured at 0, 6, and 12 mo using DXA scans of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS). BTM and 25 OHD were measured by ELISA. The effects of RT or JUMP on BMD and BTM were evaluated using 3x2 repeated measures ANOVA (time, group). This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the University of Missouri IRB.

Results: At baseline, 36 of 38 participants were vitamin D sufficient (25OHD >50 nmol/L); at 12 mo, all participants were 25OHD sufficient. 25OHD did not differ between groups. WB and LS BMD significantly increased after 6 months of RT or JUMP and this increase was maintained at 12 mo; TH BMD increased only in RT. Osteocalcin increased significantly after 12 mo of RT or JUMP; CTx decreased significantly after 6 mo and returned to baseline concentrations at 12 mo in both RT and JUMP. Pain and fatigue ratings after RT or JUMP sessions were very low at 0, 6, and 12 mo.

Conclusion: RT or JUMP, which appeared safe and feasible, increased BMD of the whole body and lumbar spine, while RT also increased hip BMD, in moderately active, osteopenic men.

Keywords: Bone formation; Bone resorption; Bone turnover markers; Exercise intervention; Male osteopenia.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adult
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / rehabilitation*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteocalcin / blood
  • Resistance Training / methods


  • Osteocalcin