Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively), as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.