Nicotine delivery and pharmacologic response from Verve, an oral nicotine delivery product

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Sep;136:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.06.010. Epub 2015 Jun 19.


Verve, an oral nicotine delivery product (ONDP), was introduced by Nu Mark (Altria Client Group, Richmond VA) for smokers to use in places where smoking is prohibited. This study assessed the effect of this ONDP on plasma nicotine levels, heart rate, product satisfaction, and ability to suppress smoking urge and cigarette cravings. Thirteen daily cigarette smokers [8 men and 5 women; average age 33.4years] attended two laboratory sessions, one occurred after overnight tobacco abstinence. Plasma samples were collected before and after ONDP use and measured for nicotine. In non-abstinent smokers, mean plasma nicotine levels increased from 18.3 to 21.0ng/mL. In abstinent smokers, average nicotine levels increased from 3.1 to 4.5ng/mL. After overnight tobacco abstinence, ONDP use significantly (p<0.01) increased heart rate from 69beats per minute (bpm) to 75bpm; while urge to smoke decreased significantly (p<0.01) from a score of 8.6 to 4.9. Participants indicated moderate product satisfaction that was not changed by tobacco abstinence. Analysis of unused ONDP revealed total nicotine levels of 1.68±0.09mg/disc. Spent ONDP discs were also analyzed to determine % nicotine liberated during chewing; results were 80% in the non-abstinent and 82% in the abstinent conditions (ns). Our study results indicate that ONDP use can increase plasma nicotine levels and heart rate and reduce cigarette cravings in abstinent smokers.

Keywords: Nicotine pharmacokinetics; Oral nicotine delivery product (ONDP); Tobacco; Verve.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Craving / drug effects*
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Drug Liberation
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage*
  • Nicotine / blood
  • Nicotine / pharmacokinetics
  • Nicotine / pharmacology*
  • Young Adult


  • Nicotine