Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease

J Fish Dis. 2016 Jun;39(6):667-72. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12395. Epub 2015 Jun 11.


Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (

Keywords: Kudoa septempunctata; foodborne disease; genetic variant; mitochondrial gene; myxozoa; phylogeography.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Fish Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Fish Diseases / parasitology
  • Flatfishes
  • Foodborne Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Foodborne Diseases / parasitology
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Mitochondrial
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Myxozoa / classification
  • Myxozoa / genetics*
  • Parasitic Diseases, Animal / epidemiology*
  • Parasitic Diseases, Animal / parasitology
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Seafood / poisoning*
  • Seasons
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / veterinary

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB915830
  • GENBANK/AB915831
  • GENBANK/AB915832
  • GENBANK/AB915833
  • GENBANK/LC014799