Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae

Redox Biol. 2015 Aug;5:308-318. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2015.06.003. Epub 2015 Jun 12.


The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth.

Keywords: Development; Fish; Glutathione; Nutrition; Redox; nrf2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet*
  • Gadus morhua / growth & development
  • Gadus morhua / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / genetics
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • RNA / chemistry
  • RNA / metabolism
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA


  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • RNA
  • Glutathione