CD19-Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Scand J Immunol. 2015 Oct;82(4):307-19. doi: 10.1111/sji.12331.

Abstract

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for cancer represents a promising new treatment modality. ACT based on the administration of cytotoxic T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognizing CD19 expressed by B cell malignancies has been shown to induce complete lasting responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). So far, eleven clinical trials including 99 CLL and ALL patients treated with CAR T cells targeting CD19 have been published, and the results from these trials are promising with impressive clinical responses in heavily pretreated patients. Thus, CAR T cell therapy has induced complete responses in both CLL and ALL, and surprisingly, current results indicate that patients with ALL are more prone to respond than are CLL patients. Importantly, the majority of CAR cell studies have observed severe therapy-associated toxicities, which needs attention. Herein we review current data and discuss key aspects of this powerful approach to treat and potentially cure B cell malignancies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, CD19 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive / adverse effects
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy*
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy*
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / genetics
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / transplantation*

Substances

  • Antigens, CD19
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins