Real-time cancer diagnosis during prostate biopsy: ex vivo evaluation of full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) imaging on biopsy cores

World J Urol. 2016 Feb;34(2):237-43. doi: 10.1007/s00345-015-1620-6. Epub 2015 Jun 23.


Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (Acc) of full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) for cancer detection on prostate biopsy.

Materials and methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious digital rectal examination were prospectively included. For each patient, 1-10 cores were randomly selected and imaged with FFOCT immediately after sampling. The images obtained were de-identified and analyzed by three pathologists blinded to the results of pathological evaluation. The overall average Acc was measured, as well as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV). The Acc learning curve was assessed by multivariate logistic regression, and inter-reader concordance was assessed by Kappa index.

Results: One hundred and nineteen cores were imaged. Of them, 40 (33.6%) were involved with cancer. The overall average Acc of FFOCT for cancer detection was of 70.6%. Se, Sp, PPV, and NPV were of 63, 74, 55.5, and 80%, respectively. A substantial agreement was observed among pathologists (κ = 0.6, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, Acc was associated with the number of previously interpreted cases, with a predicted Acc of 82% at the end of learning curve. The overall average accuracy for high Gleason score (>3 + 3) determination was of 72%, although results were limited by the small amount of cases.

Conclusions: FFOCT of prostate biopsy cores may provide a diagnostic accuracy greater than 80%, with a good reliability and a high NPV.

Take home message: "Full-field optical coherence tomography is a novel imaging modality that could have a potential value in real-time diagnosis of prostate cancer during prostate biopsy procedures."

Keywords: Biopsy; Diagnostic; Full-field optical coherence tomography; Prostate cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Humans
  • Image-Guided Biopsy / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate / pathology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods*