Recent research has highlighted the importance of bone and muscle interactions during development and regeneration. There still remains, however, a large gap in the current understanding of the cells and mechanisms involved in this interplay. In particular, how muscle-derived cells, specifically mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), can impact bone regeneration or lead to pathologic ectopic bone formation is unclear. Here, a review is given of the evidence supporting the contribution of muscle-derived MSC to bone regeneration and suggesting a critical role for the inflammatory milieu. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".
Keywords: Bone formation; Fracture repair; MSC; Skeletal muscle.
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