Esculentoside A suppresses Aβ(1-42)-induced neuroinflammation by down-regulating MAPKs pathways in vivo

Neurol Res. 2015 Oct;37(10):859-66. doi: 10.1179/1743132815Y.0000000066. Epub 2015 Jun 23.


Introduction: Esculentoside A (EsA) is a saponin isolated from the roots of Phytolacca esculenta. Previous studies have demonstrated that EsA exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects in peripheral immune inflammation. This study is to determine whether EsA is effective in inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: Male C57BL/6(B6) mice were divided into three groups of six mice as follows: (1) control group; (2) AD model group (Aβ(1-42)-induced AD mice with saline); (3) EsA group (Aβ(1-42)-induced AD mice with EsA, 5 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 15 days). Behavioural testing was performed after 15 days of EsA treatment. Real time PCR and Western blot were used to assess the level of inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Immunostaining was used to determine the level of activated microglia and astrocyte.

Results: The results showed that EsA attenuated memory deficits in Aβ(1-42)-induced AD mice. Esculentoside A decreased the pro-inflammatory factors and microglia and astrocyte activation in the hippocampi of Aβ(1-42)-induced AD mice. Moreover, Aβ(1-42) activated phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs in the hippocampi of mice in the AD model group, while EsA significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that EsA provides protective effects against neuroinflammation triggered by β-amyloid.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease,; Beta-amyloid,; Esculentoside A,; MAPKs pathways; Neuroinflammation,.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / complications*
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Astrocytes / drug effects
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Down-Regulation
  • Encephalitis / chemically induced
  • Encephalitis / metabolism*
  • Encephalitis / prevention & control*
  • Hippocampus / drug effects
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microglia / drug effects
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • Oleanolic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Oleanolic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Saponins / administration & dosage*


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Saponins
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-42)
  • esculentoside A
  • Oleanolic Acid