Objective: To define the outcomes and risk predictors of fetal and maternal consequences of pregnancy in lupus nephritis (LN) patients.
Methods: Maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in 52 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were observed. Patients were allocated into two groups according to the presence or absence of LN.
Results: LN patients were subject to a higher risk of fetal complications, including fetal loss (7/24, 29.2 %, P = 0.001), lower birth weight (2548.2 ± 540.8 vs. 2949.1 ± 592.6 g, P = 0.028) and a higher frequency of small for gestational age births (33.3 vs. 10.7 %, P = 0.002). Higher rates of lupus flares (83.3 vs. 21.4 %, P = 0.001) and increased LAI-P scores (0.65 ± 0.36 vs. 0.21 ± 0.27, P = 0.001) during pregnancy were observed in LN patients. Multivariate analysis showed that increased SLE activity (P = 0.02, OR 4.2, 95 % CI 1.2-14.5), renal damage (P = 0.001, OR 8.4, 95 % CI 2.2-31.8), hypocomplementemia (P = 0.05, OR 3.23, 95 % CI 1.0-10.7), hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.011, OR 5.62, 95 % CI 1.4-23.0) and hypertension (P = 0.021, OR 6.0, 95 % CI 1.5-24.2) during pregnancy were predictors of adverse fetal outcomes.
Conclusions: Pregnancy in LN patients should be monitored before and during pregnancy because of poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Increased LAI-P scores, renal damage, hypocomplementemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypertension are predictors of adverse fetal outcomes for SLE patients.