Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa Tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab From the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 24;10(6):e0127621. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127621. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). The species is known to depend on primary productivity by chemosynthetic bacteria and resides at the warm-eurythermal vent environment for most of its life; its short-range distribution away from vents (few metres) is physiologically constrained by the stable, cold waters of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on - or in close proximity of - vent chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida), which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acclimatization / physiology*
  • Adaptation, Physiological*
  • Animals
  • Anomura / genetics
  • Anomura / physiology*
  • Antarctic Regions
  • Ecosystem*
  • Hydrothermal Vents
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics

Substances

  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

Grant support

This work was supported by a NERC (UK) Consortium Grant (NE/D01249X/1; ChEsSo), as well as a grant from the Total Foundation (Abyss2100) to Sven Thatje.