The relationship between microvascular complications and vitamin D deficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus

BMC Endocr Disord. 2015 Jun 25:15:33. doi: 10.1186/s12902-015-0029-y.


Background: Vitamin D deficiency is reported as a possible risk factor for the development of diabetes in several epidemiologic studies. In this study, we investigated the frequency of 25-OH vitamin D deficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus and the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D deficiency and the prevalence of microvascular complications.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of 557 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to the Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic from January to March 2010 and 112 healthy controls randomly selected from individuals admitted to the hospital for a check-up and who had a laboratory result for serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations at screening. The levels of 25-OH vitamin D in patients with type 2 diabetes and the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D deficiency and microvascular complications were investigated.

Results: No significant difference in serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations was observed between the diabetic and control groups. No correlation was observed between HbA1C and serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were lower in diabetic patients with nephropathy, and patients not using any medication, i.e., those treated with dietary changes alone, had a higher prevalence of nephropathy.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is more common in diabetic patients with nephropathy. When microvascular complications were evaluated, vitamin D levels were found to be lower in patients in whom these complications were more severe. Vitamin D deficiency is therefore associated with microvascular complications in diabetic patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Neuropathies / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D