Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 May;11(Suppl 1):S217-24. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.157743.


Background: Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases risk of having a range of gastrointestinal problems. Therefore, new anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic drugs having lesser side effects are being searched all overthe world as alternatives to NSAIDs.

Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic profile of Ocimum sanctum root extracts.

Materials and methods: Anti-inflammatory profile of hexane (STH), chloroform (STC), ethyl acetate (STE), butanol (STB) and water (STW) extracts of OS was carried out by using carrageenan induced paw edema. STE a most active extract was further validated in dose dependent manner for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity as well as oral toxicity profile in small laboratory animals. Identification of bioactives flux and chemical signature of most active fraction STE was developed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting.

Results: An ethyl acetate fraction (STE) exhibit most potent anti-inflammatory activity followed by STB, STW, STC and STH. Dose response study of STE showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic potential in dose-dependent manner without any toxic effect at dose 2000 mg/kg. Chemical fingerprint revealed the presence of flavanoids.

Conclusions: The present research revealed that STE possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. However, future research is advocated to evaluate the pharmacological properties of isolated bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Analgesic; Ocimum sanctum; anti-inflammatory; anti-pyretic.