Context: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is rarely seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.
Case report: We report a 24-year-old CF patient with fever, cough, hemoptysis, and weight loss of 1week duration prior to admission. Past sputum cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics based on previous culture data, but failed to improve. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) chest revealed chronic collapse of the anterior subsegment of right upper lobe and multiple bilateral cavitary lesions which were worse compared to prior films. MTB was suspected and was confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears and cultures. After receiving first-line antituberculous drugs, the patient's condition markedly improved.
Conclusion: MTB is an infrequent finding, but considered a potential pathogen in CF patients, and may lead to serious pulmonary complications if there is a delay in diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: AFB; Cystic fibrosis; GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay; Genotyping; MTB.