Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the proximal humerus represents a challenging problem to the surgeon. It is commonly seen following multi-fragmentary fractures of the proximal humerus which may affect the long-term functional recovery after such injuries. This review summarises the current evidence on risk factors, reasons why estimating its epidemiology is difficult, the vascular supply of the humeral head, classification, and management options.
Keywords: Osteonecrosis; Shoulder fractures.
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