Anti-Social Behaviors Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use among Male Adolescents

Eur Addict Res. 2015;21(6):321-6. doi: 10.1159/000433580. Epub 2015 Jun 19.


Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been linked to a range of problematic behaviors, but AAS use is still sometimes portrayed as more benign than other forms of classical drug abuse. To address this issue, we compared the prevalence of anti-social behaviors among adolescent AAS users, non-AAS illicit drug users, and drug non-users. We examined 3 waves (2004, 2008, and 2012) of self-reported cross-sectional data from a secondary school survey conducted in Stockholm, Sweden (total n = 19,773; response percentage, 79.6%). Across all survey years, the risk ratios for virtually all measured anti-social behaviors were significantly higher among AAS users compared to non-AAS illicit drug users and to drug non-users.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anabolic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder / chemically induced*
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder / epidemiology
  • Bullying
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Crime
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Social Adjustment
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Sweden / epidemiology


  • Anabolic Agents