Background/objectives: The risk of hypertension (HTN) in patients who regularly drink soda is controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the associations between consumption of sugar and artificially sweetened soda and HTN.
Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through January 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of HTN in patients consuming a significant amount of either sugar or artificially sweetened soda versus those who did not consume soda were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.
Results: Eight studies were included in our analysis to assess the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened soda and HTN. The pooled RR of HTN in patients consuming sugar-sweetened soda was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.23). Four studies were selected to assess the association between consumption of artificially sweetened soda and HTN. The pooled RR of HTN in patients consuming artificially sweetened soda was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11-1.19).
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates statistically significant associations between both sugar and artificially sweetened soda consumption and HTN. This finding may impact clinical management and primary prevention of HTN.
Keywords: Carbonated beverages; hypertension; meta-analysis; soda; soft drink.