Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 May 24;57(8):1650-1663. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1008980.


A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was conducted to examine the relation between fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to June 2014 for relevant studies. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were calculated and dose-response relationship was assessed. Thirty-eight studies, consisting of 47 independent cohorts, were eligible in this meta-analysis. There were 1,498,909 participants (44,013 CVD events) with a median follow-up of 10.5 years. The pooled RR (95% confidence interval) of CVD for the highest versus lowest category was 0.83 (0.79-0.86) for FV consumption, 0.84 (0.79-0.88) for fruit consumption, and 0.87 (0.83-0.91) for vegetable consumption, respectively. Dose-response analysis showed that those eating 800 g per day of FV consumption had the lowest risk of CVD. Our results indicate that increased FV intake is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. This meta-analysis provides strong support for the current recommendations to consume a high amount of FV to reduce CVD risk.

Keywords: Fruit; cardiovascular disease; meta-analysis; vegetable.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Vegetables*