Marked protection against acute renal and hepatic injury after nitrited myoglobin + tin protoporphyrin administration

Transl Res. 2015 Nov;166(5):485-501. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2015.06.004. Epub 2015 Jun 10.


The phenomenon known as renal "ischemic preconditioning," whereby an initial ischemic insult induces resistance against subsequent kidney damage, has been well established in the experimental literature. However, a clinically applicable way to safely recapitulate this state has not been defined. We hypothesized that a unique combination of agents (nitrited myoglobin [N-Mgb] + tin protoporphyrin [SnPP]) can achieve these ends safely and synergistically, increasing cytoprotective proteins (eg, heme oxygenase 1 [HO-1], interleukin 10 [IL-10], and haptoglobin) in kidney cells. To test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice received 1 mg of N-Mgb and 1 μmol of SnPP, either alone or in combination. Renal cortical HO-1, haptoglobin, and IL-10 gene expressions (messenger RNA [mRNA], protein levels) were determined 4 and 18 hours later. Cytoresistance to 3 forms of acute kidney injury (AKI; glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis, maleate nephrotoxicity, and postischemic AKI progression to chronic kidney disease [CKD]) was assessed. To ascertain whether cytoresistance might emerge in extrarenal organs, hepatic HO-1, IL-10, and haptoglobin levels were also measured, and resistance to 25 minutes of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and hepatotoxicity (intraperitoneal glycerol injection) was sought. N-Mgb + SnPP induced additive or synergistic increases in renal HO-1, haptoglobin, and IL-10 mRNA and protein levels (up to 20-fold) without inducing any apparent renal or extrarenal damage. After 18 hours of post-treatment, marked or complete protection against glycerol-induced AKI, maleate-induced AKI, and postischemic AKI progression to CKD had emerged. Combined N-Mgb + SnPP was more protective than either agent alone (assessed in glycerol model). N-Mgb + SnPP also upregulated cytoprotective pathways in liver and induced marked protection against both hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and toxic liver damage. In conclusion, we posit that "preconditioning" with combined administration of N-Mgb + SnPP represents a promising approach for protecting against diverse forms of renal and nonrenal (hepatic) forms of tissue damage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / prevention & control*
  • Animals
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Liver / injuries*
  • Liver / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Metalloporphyrins / administration & dosage*
  • Mice
  • Myoglobin / administration & dosage*
  • Myoglobin / chemistry
  • Nitrites / chemistry*
  • Protoporphyrins / administration & dosage*


  • Metalloporphyrins
  • Myoglobin
  • Nitrites
  • Protoporphyrins
  • tin protoporphyrin IX