The phenomenon known as renal "ischemic preconditioning," whereby an initial ischemic insult induces resistance against subsequent kidney damage, has been well established in the experimental literature. However, a clinically applicable way to safely recapitulate this state has not been defined. We hypothesized that a unique combination of agents (nitrited myoglobin [N-Mgb] + tin protoporphyrin [SnPP]) can achieve these ends safely and synergistically, increasing cytoprotective proteins (eg, heme oxygenase 1 [HO-1], interleukin 10 [IL-10], and haptoglobin) in kidney cells. To test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice received 1 mg of N-Mgb and 1 μmol of SnPP, either alone or in combination. Renal cortical HO-1, haptoglobin, and IL-10 gene expressions (messenger RNA [mRNA], protein levels) were determined 4 and 18 hours later. Cytoresistance to 3 forms of acute kidney injury (AKI; glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis, maleate nephrotoxicity, and postischemic AKI progression to chronic kidney disease [CKD]) was assessed. To ascertain whether cytoresistance might emerge in extrarenal organs, hepatic HO-1, IL-10, and haptoglobin levels were also measured, and resistance to 25 minutes of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and hepatotoxicity (intraperitoneal glycerol injection) was sought. N-Mgb + SnPP induced additive or synergistic increases in renal HO-1, haptoglobin, and IL-10 mRNA and protein levels (up to 20-fold) without inducing any apparent renal or extrarenal damage. After 18 hours of post-treatment, marked or complete protection against glycerol-induced AKI, maleate-induced AKI, and postischemic AKI progression to CKD had emerged. Combined N-Mgb + SnPP was more protective than either agent alone (assessed in glycerol model). N-Mgb + SnPP also upregulated cytoprotective pathways in liver and induced marked protection against both hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and toxic liver damage. In conclusion, we posit that "preconditioning" with combined administration of N-Mgb + SnPP represents a promising approach for protecting against diverse forms of renal and nonrenal (hepatic) forms of tissue damage.
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