Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

J Autoimmun. 2015 Aug;62:39-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2015.06.002. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Abstract

Objective: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can be restored by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current literature lacks information on disease progression and quality of life of C1q deficient persons which is of major importance to guide clinicians taking care of patients with this rare disease.

Methods: We performed an international survey, of clinicians treating C1q deficient patients. A high response rate of >70% of the contacted clinicians yielded information on 45 patients with C1q deficiency of which 25 are published.

Results: Follow-up data of 45 patients from 31 families was obtained for a median of 11 years after diagnosis. Of these patients 36 (80%) suffer from SLE, of which 16 suffer from SLE and infections, 5 (11%) suffer from infections only and 4 (9%) have no symptoms. In total 9 (20%) of the C1q deficient individuals had died. All except for one died before the age of 20 years. Estimated survival times suggest 20% case-fatality before the age of 20, and at least 50% of patients are expected to reach their middle ages.

Conclusion: Here we report the largest phenotypic data set on C1q deficiency to date, revealing high variance; with high mortality but also a subset of patients with an excellent prognosis. Management of C1q deficiency requires a personalized approach.

Keywords: Autoimmunity; C1q deficiency; Infections; Systemic lupus erythematosus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Complement C1q / deficiency*
  • Complement C1q / genetics
  • Complement C1q / immunology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infections / diagnosis
  • Infections / epidemiology
  • Infections / etiology
  • Infections / therapy
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / diagnosis*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / epidemiology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / genetics
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / immunology*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / therapy
  • Male
  • Phenotype*
  • Prognosis
  • Quality of Life
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Complement C1q