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, 34 (3), 156-61

Effect of Calendula Officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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Effect of Calendula Officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Shirin Moradkhani et al. Anc Sci Life.

Abstract

Background: Medicinal plants, owing to their different mechanisms such as antioxidants effects, may improve learning and memory impairments in diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis (CO), has a significant antioxidant activity.

Aims: To examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CO on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats.

Settings and design: A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: Control, diabetic, control + extract of CO and diabetic control + extract of CO groups with free access to regular rat diet.

Subjects and methods: Diabetes in diabetic rats was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After confirmation of diabetes, oral administration of 300 mg/kg CO extract to extract-treated groups have been done. PAL was tested 8 weeks after onset of treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment.

Statistical analysis used: The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference post-hoc analysis.

Results: Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight.

Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia.

Keywords: Calendula officinalis; diabetes mellitus; learning; memory; passive avoidance.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effects of long-term administration of Calendula officinalis extract on the passive avoidance learning test. The effect of long-term oral administration of extract on the step-through latency (STLa) in the first acquisition trial (a), the number of trials to acquisition (b), STLr in the retention test after 24 (c) and 48 h (e), the time spent in the dark compartment during the retention test after 24 (d) and 48 h (f) between different control, diabetic, control + calendula and diabetic + calendula groups (n = 8). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 significant differences compared to control group. #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001 significant differences compared to diabetic group. $P < 0.05, $$P < 0.01 and $$$P < 0.001 significant differences compared to diabetic + calendula group

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