Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) continues to cause significant clinical and economic burden around the world. Historically, RSV-associated hospitalization was used as a primary endpoint for RSV prophylaxis trials in infants. However, because of the changing epidemiology and healthcare system landscape, this endpoint has become a critical bottleneck on the pathway to licensure for new therapeutics. A panel of 7 RSV experts was convened (Chicago, IL, May 22, 2014) to evaluate the challenges of defining RSV prevention endpoints for clinical trials and to develop endpoints that are clinically meaningful while minimizing subjectivity and bias to achieve sufficient consistency of response for regulatory approval. Particular consideration was given to the ability to collect data systematically and consistently in countries with different healthcare practices and systems, while capturing the greatest proportion of disease impact. The group consensus was that a clinically meaningful primary endpoint could include medically attended RSV illness in settings beyond RSV-associated hospitalizations alone, in particular, a composite reduction in hospitalization, emergency room or urgent care center visits because of an RSV respiratory infection. Relevant secondary endpoints included reductions in RSV lower respiratory tract infection, RSV-related intensive care unit rates, subsequent recurrent wheezing or asthma and direct and indirect costs.