Elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the contralateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mediates mirror-image pain after peripheral nerve injury, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Using intrathecal injection of NGF antibodies, we found that NGF is required for the development of intra-DRG synapse-like structures made by neurite sprouts of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP(+)) nociceptors and sympathetic axons onto neurite sprouts of Kv4.3(+) nociceptors. These synapse-like structures are formed near NGF-releasing satellite glia surrounding large DRG neurons. Downregulation of the postsynaptic protein PSD95 with a specific shRNA largely eliminates these synapse-like structures, suppresses activities of Kv4.3(+) but not CGRP(+) nociceptors, and attenuates mirror-image pain. Furthermore, neutralizing the neurotransmitter norepinephrine or CGRP in the synapse-like structures by antibodies has similar analgesic effect. Thus, elevated NGF after peripheral nerve injury induces neurite sprouting and the formation of synapse-like structures within the contralateral DRG, leading to the development of chronic mirror-image pain.