Objective: Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, enhances urinary glucose excretion through an insulin-independent mode of action, and improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin across racial groups.
Methods: The efficacy of canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg was evaluated by racial group using data pooled from four placebo-controlled phase 3 studies and two placebo-controlled sub-studies of a population of patients with inadequately controlled T2DM (N = 4158). Least-squares mean changes from baseline were calculated for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), body weight (BW), cholesterol, and triglycerides. Safety/tolerability evaluation included reporting of general and prespecified adverse events (AEs).
Results: A total of 75% of patients were White, 13% were Asian, 4% were Black/African American, and 8% were 'Other' (American Indian, Alaskan Native, mixed race, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, not reported, and unknown). Baseline demographics were similar for these groups. Dose-related reductions in HbA1c, BW, and SBP were observed with both canagliflozin doses in all racial groups. Canagliflozin was generally safe and well tolerated. Treatment with canagliflozin was associated with an increased rate of genital mycotic infections (GMIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in all racial groups. GMIs were observed more often in Black/African American males and males from the 'Other' racial group, whereas UTIs and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were less common in Asians. Key study limitations include the high proportion of White patients compared with other racial groups and the fact that included studies were not powered to evaluate racial differences.
Conclusion: Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated and consistently associated with reductions in HbA1c, BW, and SBP in patients with T2DM independent of racial background. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers: NCT01081834; NCT01106677; NCT01106625; NCT01106690; and NCT01032629.).
Keywords: Canagliflozin; Efficacy; Race; Safety; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.