Viruses encounter and manipulate almost all aspects of cell structure and metabolism. The nuclear envelope (NE), with central roles in cell structure and genome function, acts and is usurped in diverse ways by different viruses. It can act as a physical barrier to infection that must be overcome, as a functional barrier that restricts infection by various mechanisms and must be counteracted or indeed as a positive niche, important or even essential for virus infection or production of progeny virions. This review summarizes virus-host interactions at the NE, highlighting progress in understanding the replication of viruses including HIV-1, Influenza, Herpes Simplex, Adenovirus and Ebola, and molecular insights into hitherto unknown functional pathways at the NE.
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