Background: Molar Incisor Hypoplasia (MIH) and Deciduous Molar Hypoplasia (DMH) have significant impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of MIH and DMH in children resident in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and their association with sex and socioeconomic status of the children.
Methods: Information on age, sex and socioeconomic status was collected from 563 children aged 3 to 5 years and 8 to 10 years using a structured questionnaire through a household survey. Clinical examination was conducted to assess for the presence of DMH and MIH. The prevalence of DMH and MIH were determined. Tests of association between sex, socioeconomic status, prevalence, and pattern of presentation of both DMH and MIH were conducted using Pearson's Chi-squared test Fisher's exact test.
Result: Fifteen (4.6%) of the 327 children aged 3 to 5 years and 23 (9.7%) of the 237 children aged 8 to 10 years had DMH and MIH respectively. There were no significant association between DMH, sex (p = 0.49) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.32). There were also no significant association between MIH, sex (p = 0.31) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.41). MIH/DMH co-morbidity was observed in eight (34.8%) of the 23 children with MIH. The mandible and maxilla were affected equally. Antimere was not observed.
Conclusion: The prevalence of DMH and the prevalence of MIH in the study population were high. DMH and MIH were not associated with sex and socioeconomic status. There was no specific pattern identified in the presentation of DMH and MIH. The prevalence of DMH/MIH co-morbidity is also high. Patients with DMH should be screened for MIH.