Tree Nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005-2010

Nutr J. 2015 Jun 28;14:64. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0052-x.

Abstract

Introduction: Previous research has shown inconsistencies in the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Objective: To determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for CVD and for MetS in adults.

Methods: NHANES 2005-2010 data were used to examine the associations of tree nut consumption with health risks in adults 19+ years (n = 14,386; 51% males). Tree nuts were: almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts [hazelnuts], macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts. Group definitions were non-consumers < ¼ ounce/day and consumers of ≥ ¼ ounce/day tree nuts using data from 24-h dietary recalls. Means and ANOVA (covariate adjusted) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Using logistic regression, odds ratios of being overweight (OW)/obese (OB) (body mass index [BMI] >25/<30 and ≥30, respectively) and having CVRF or MetS, were determined.

Results: Tree nut consumption was associated with lower BMI (p = 0.004), waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.008), systolic blood pressure (BP) (p = 0.001), Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (p = 0.043), and higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = 0.022), compared with no consumption, and a lower likelihood of OB (-25%), OW/OB (-23%), and elevated WC (-21%).

Conclusions: Tree nut consumption was associated with better weight status and some CVRF and MetS components.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nuts*
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • United States

Substances

  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Triglycerides