RGS Protein Regulation of Phototransduction

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;133:31-45. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.02.004. Epub 2015 Apr 16.


First identified in yeast and worm and later in other species, the physiological importance of Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS) in mammals was first demonstrated at the turn of the century in mouse retinal photoreceptors, in which RGS9 is needed for timely recovery of rod phototransduction. The role of RGS in vision has also been established a synapse away in retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs), where RGS7 and RGS11 work redundantly and in a complex with Gβ5-S as GAPs for Goα in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 pathway situated at DBC dendritic tips. Much less is known on how RGS protein subserves vision in the rest of the visual system. The research into the roles of RGS proteins in vision holds great potential for many exciting new discoveries.

Keywords: Depolarizing bipolar cell; Heterotrimeric G-protein; Photoreceptor; Phototransduction; Rate-limiting step; Regulators of G-protein Signaling; Retina; Vision.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Light Signal Transduction*
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Photons
  • RGS Proteins / metabolism*


  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • RGS Proteins
  • GTP-Binding Proteins