Chewing herbivores cause massive damage when crushing plant tissues with their mandibles, thus releasing a vast array of cues that may be perceived by the plant to mobilize defenses. Besides releasing damage cues in wounded tissues, herbivores deposit abundant cues from their saliva, regurgitant and feces that trigger herbivore specific responses in plants. Herbivores can manipulate the perception mechanisms and defense signals to suppress plant defenses by secreting effectors and/or by exploiting their associated oral microbes. Recent studies indicate that both the composition of herbivore cues and the plant's ability to recognize them are highly dependent upon the specific plant-herbivore system. There is a growing amount of work on identifying herbivore elicitors and effectors, but the most significant bottleneck in the discipline is the identification and characterization of plant receptors that perceive these herbivore-specific cues.
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