Quail-chick intracoelomic grafts of organ rudiments were used to study the origin of endothelia and haemopoietic cells during avian organogenesis in conjunction with the monoclonal antibody QH1 which recognizes the quail haemangioblastic lineage. Results differed according to the germ-layer constitution of the grafted rudiments. In the case of the limb buds, endothelial cells from the host invaded the graft through an angiogenic process. Haemopoietic progenitors from the host also colonized the grafted bone marrow. In contrast, rudiments of internal organs provided their own contingent of endothelial precursors, a process termed vasculogenesis. Nevertheless, haemopoietic cells in these organs were all derived from the host. In the lung, this extrinsic cell population appeared regularly scattered around the parabronchi and had a macrophage-like phenotype. In the pancreas, the granulocytes which differentiate as dense aggregates located in the wall of the largest vessels were extrinsic. Similarly in the spleen, a mesodermal primordium that develops in close association with the pancreatic endoderm, endothelial cells were intrinsic and haemopoietic cells host-derived. This study demonstrates that, in ontogeny, vascularization obeys different rules depending on which germ layer the mesoderm is associated with: in mesodermal/ectodermal rudiments angiogenesis is the rule; in mesodermal/endodermal rudiments, vasculogenesis occurs. However, in these internal organs undergoing vasculogenesis, endothelial and haemopoietic cells have separate origins. We put forward the hypothesis that the endoderm induces the emergence of endothelial cells in the associated mesoderm. Formation of blood stem cells may also involve interactions between endoderm and mesoderm, but in this case the responding capacity of the mesoderm appears restricted to the paraaortic region.