1. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption, catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (amino-triazole) and peroxisome proliferator clofibrate on the level of Fe/ADP-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation has been studied in the rat myocardium. The intensity of lipid peroxidation was measured using chemiluminescence technique and malondialdehyde formation. 2. Combined us well as separate treatment with ethanol (36% of dietary calories) and aminotriazole caused elevation of the rate of lipid peroxidation in the nuclear-free homogenate or total particulate fraction of the rat heart. The most pronounced effect was noted during combined application of ethanol and aminotriazole. 3. Prolonged clofibrate treatment significantly increased the level of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in the rat myocardium. 4. Peroxidative alteration of the myocardial lipids in vivo was evaluated by measurement of conjugated dienes (absorbance at 233 nm). Separate ethanol, aminotriazole or clofibrate treatment did not affect the level of u.v. absorption of lipids from the total particulate fraction. However, when ethanol and aminotriazole were administered simultaneously an increase of conjugated diene formation was observed. 5. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that ethanol or clofibrate-induced activation of the myocardial lipid peroxidation may be due to the increase of hydrogen peroxide-generating capacity of the heart microperoxisomes.