Utility of CD54, CD229, and CD319 for the identification of plasma cells in patients with clonal plasma cell diseases

Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2016 Jan;90(1):91-100. doi: 10.1002/cyto.b.21269. Epub 2015 Jul 31.


Background: Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) identification and characterization of plasma cells (PCs) is a useful tool to support diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring of PC diseases (PCD). Currently, the number of MFC markers suited for the identification of PC remains limited. Moreover, antibody therapies against PC-associated markers further compromise the utility of the most widely used reagents (e.g., CD38). Despite markers other than CD38 and CD138 are recognized as potentially useful PC-identification markers, no study has comparatively evaluated their performance in combination with CD38 and CD138. Here we compared the utility of CD229, CD54, and CD319 for the identification of normal and aberrant PCs.

Methods: Bone marrow (BM) samples from 5 healthy controls, two noninfiltrated nonHodgkin lymphoma cases and 46 PCD patients plus 3 extraosseous plasmocytomas, and normal peripheral blood (PB) specimens, were studied.

Results: Our results showed adequate performance of all three markers once combined with CD38. In contrast, when combined with CD138 for the identification of PC, only CD229 provided a good discrimination between PCs and all other cells for all BM and PB samples analyzed; in contrast, CD54 and CD319 showed limited utility for the identification of PCs, mainly because of significant overlap of the staining for these two markers on PCs and other myeloid cells in the sample.

Conclusions: From the three markers evaluated, CD229 may be considered as the most reliable marker to replace CD38 or CD138 for the identification of PCs in patients undergoing anti-CD38 or anti-CD138 therapy, until a better alternative is available.

Keywords: EuroFlow; immunophenotyping; minimal residual disease; multiparameter flow cytometry; multiple myeloma; new markers; plasma cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies / chemistry
  • Antigens, CD / analysis*
  • Antigens, CD / genetics
  • Antigens, CD / immunology
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Clone Cells
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / analysis
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / genetics
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / immunology
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis*
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis*
  • Multiple Myeloma / immunology
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology
  • Plasma Cells / immunology
  • Plasma Cells / pathology*
  • Plasmacytoma / diagnosis*
  • Plasmacytoma / immunology
  • Plasmacytoma / pathology
  • Receptors, Immunologic / analysis
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics
  • Receptors, Immunologic / immunology
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family


  • Antibodies
  • Antigens, CD
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • LY9 protein, human
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • SLAMF7 protein, human
  • Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1