Background: Increasing evidence suggests that not only genetics, but also environmental factors like gut microbiota dysbiosis play an important role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CD).
Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B. breve B632 on serum production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in children with CD.
Methods: The study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that included 49 children with CD on gluten-free diet (GFD) randomized into two groups and 18 healthy children in the control group. The first group (24 children with CD) daily received B. breve BR03 and B632 (2 × 10(9) colony-forming units) and the second group (25 children with CD) received placebo for 3 months.
Results: TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the first group after receiving B. breve for 3 months. On follow-up, 3 months after receiving probiotics, TNF-α levels increased again. Children with CD who were on GFD for less than 1 year showed similar baseline TNF-α levels as children who were on GFD for more than 1 year. IL-10 levels were in all groups of patients below detection level.
Conclusions: Probiotic intervention with B. breve strains has shown a positive effect on decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in children with CD on GFD.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02244047.
Keywords: Bifidobacterium breve; Celiac disease; Children; Cytokines; TNF-α.