Administration of Bifidobacterium breve Decreases the Production of TNF-α in Children with Celiac Disease

Dig Dis Sci. 2015 Nov;60(11):3386-92. doi: 10.1007/s10620-015-3769-7. Epub 2015 Jul 2.


Background: Increasing evidence suggests that not only genetics, but also environmental factors like gut microbiota dysbiosis play an important role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CD).

Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B. breve B632 on serum production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in children with CD.

Methods: The study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that included 49 children with CD on gluten-free diet (GFD) randomized into two groups and 18 healthy children in the control group. The first group (24 children with CD) daily received B. breve BR03 and B632 (2 × 10(9) colony-forming units) and the second group (25 children with CD) received placebo for 3 months.

Results: TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the first group after receiving B. breve for 3 months. On follow-up, 3 months after receiving probiotics, TNF-α levels increased again. Children with CD who were on GFD for less than 1 year showed similar baseline TNF-α levels as children who were on GFD for more than 1 year. IL-10 levels were in all groups of patients below detection level.

Conclusions: Probiotic intervention with B. breve strains has shown a positive effect on decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in children with CD on GFD.

Trial registration: NCT02244047.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium breve; Celiac disease; Children; Cytokines; TNF-α.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Bifidobacterium / physiology*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Celiac Disease / blood
  • Celiac Disease / diagnosis
  • Celiac Disease / immunology
  • Celiac Disease / microbiology
  • Celiac Disease / therapy*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Down-Regulation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Interleukin-10 / blood
  • Intestine, Small / immunology
  • Intestine, Small / microbiology*
  • Male
  • Probiotics*
  • Slovenia
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood*


  • Biomarkers
  • IL10 protein, human
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10

Associated data