Polytobacco Use of Cigarettes, Cigars, Chewing Tobacco, and Snuff Among US Adults

Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):817-26. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv147. Epub 2015 Jun 30.


Introduction: Tobacco use prevalence has been commonly estimated on a product by product basis and the extent of polytobacco use among current users of each tobacco product is not well understood. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of polytobacco use among current users of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and snuff in US adults aged ≥18.

Methods: We used pooled data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 Cancer Control Supplements of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 123 399 adults). Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to determine significant factors associated with polytobacco use.

Results: In 2010, the prevalence of polytobacco use was 8.6% among current cigarette smokers, 50.3% among current cigar users, 54.8% among current chewing tobacco users, and 42.5% among current snuff users. After controlling for other covariates, gender and race/ethnicity did not show consistent associations with poly-use across these four groups of current tobacco users; however, a positive association of young adulthood, less than high school education, and binge drinking with poly-use was consistently found among all these groups.

Conclusions: Polytobacco use is extremely popular among current users of non-cigarette tobacco products. Polytobacco use patterns differ across sociodemographic subpopulations, and the gender and racial/ethnic profiles in poly-users vary across different groups of current tobacco users. Tobacco control strategies need to consider the interrelationships in the use of different tobacco products and the diverse profiles of poly-users in order to develop tailored tobacco prevention and intervention policies to further reduce the burden of tobacco use.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk-Taking
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / ethnology
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tobacco Products* / adverse effects
  • Tobacco Products* / statistics & numerical data
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / ethnology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / prevention & control
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology
  • United States / epidemiology