Background: Low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening is known to have a high false positive rate. This study aims to survey biomarkers of angiogenesis for those capable of assigning clinical significance to indeterminate pulmonary nodules detected through CT imaging studies.
Methods: An institutional database and specimen repository was used to identify 193 patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (T1N0M0) and 110 patients with benign solitary pulmonary nodules detected by CT imaging studies. All specimens were evaluated in a blinded manner for 17 biomarkers of angiogenesis using multiplex immunoassays. Biomarker performance was calculated through the Mann-Whitney rank sum U test and a receiver operator characteristic analysis. These data were used to refine our previously reported multi-analyte classification panel, which was then externally validated against an independent patient cohort (n = 80).
Results: A total of 303 patients were screened for 17 biomarkers of angiogenesis. Median nodule size was 1.2 cm for benign cases and 1.8 cm for non-small cell lung cancer, whereas median smoking histories were 25 and 40 pack-years, respectively. Differences in serum concentrations of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular (V)EGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were strongly significant (p ≤ 0.001) while follistatin, placental growth factor (PLGF), and bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-9 were significant (p ≤ 0.05) between patients with benign and malignant nodules. Our previously reported multi-analyte classification panel was refined to include interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-5, IGFBP-4, IGF-2, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1(α+β), HB-EGF, and HGF resulting in improved accuracy and a validated negative predictive value of 96.4%.
Conclusions: Angiogenesis biomarkers may be useful in discriminating stage I NSCLC from benign pulmonary nodules.
Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.