The accurate prediction of pharmacokinetics (PK) is fundamental to underwriting safety and efficacy in pediatric clinical trials; age-dependent PK may be observed with pediatrics because of the growth and maturation processes that occur during development. Understanding the ontogeny of drug-metabolizing enzymes is a critical enabler for pediatric PK prediction, as enzyme expression or activity may change with age. Although ontogeny functions for the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have been developed, disconnects between ontogeny functions for the same CYP may exist, depending on whether the functions were derived from in vitro or in vivo data. This report describes the development of ontogeny functions for all the major hepatic CYPs based on in vitro or in vivo data; these ontogeny functions were subsequently incorporated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and evaluated. Pediatric PK predictions based on in vivo-derived ontogeny functions performed markedly better than those developed from in vitro data for intravenous (100% versus 51% within 2-fold, respectively) and oral (98% versus 67%, respectively) dosing. The verified models were then applied to complex pediatric scenarios involving active metabolites, CYP polymorphisms and physiological changes because of critical illness; the models reasonably explained the observed age-dependent changes in pediatric PK.
Keywords: cytochrome P450; ontogeny; pediatrics; pharmacokinetics; physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.
© 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.